What Is Kidney stone?
Kidney stones are abnormal, hard, chemical deposits that form inside the kidneys. This condition also is called nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis.
Kidney stones are often as small as grains of sand. They pass out of the body in urine without causing discomfort.
However, the deposits can be much larger - the size of a pea, a marble or even larger. Some of these larger stones are too big to be flushed from the kidney.
What are the common sign and symptoms?
Some kidney stones manage to travel into the ureter. This is the narrow tube between the kidney and bladder. The stones may become trapped in the ureter. Trapped kidney stones can cause many different symptoms.
What are the different types of stone?
There are several different types of stones. They form for a variety of reasons. Kidney stones are grouped into four different families, based on their chemical composition:
Very small kidney stones may pass out of the body in the urine without causing symptoms.
Larger stones may become trapped in the narrow ureter.
This can cause:
Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms. He or she will ask about any change in the color of your urine. Your doctor will want to know about your family history of kidney stones, and whether you have had gout.
Your doctor will check your urine for red blood cells. He or she may order a computed tomography (CT) scan or ultrasound. The CT scan can show an actual stone. The ultrasound usually cannot detect the actual stone. But an ultrasound can show swelling of the kidney and/or ureter which indicates that the stone is obstructing urine flow.
If you are able to collect a stone that you passed from your urine, your doctor will send the stone to a laboratory for chemical analysis. Blood and urine tests may be done to identify a treatable cause of the stone.
If you do not have any symptoms and you find a small kidney stone in your urine, strain out the stone and save it for your doctor. Your doctor can send the stone to a medical laboratory for chemical analysis.
When a kidney stone becomes trapped in the ureter, it may remain there until your doctor removes it. Or, it eventually may move downward and pass on its own. It can take hours, days or weeks for a stone to pass.
As a rule, the smaller the stone, the more likely it is to pass on its own. The larger the stone, the greater the risk that it will remain trapped in the ureter. A trapped stone can significantly obstruct the flow of urine.
What you can do to prevent formation of renal stone?
In general, you can help to prevent kidney stones by drinking plenty of fluids and avoiding dehydration. This dilutes your urine and decreases the chance that chemicals will combine to form stones.
You can prevent calcium oxalate stones by eating low-fat dairy products and other calcium-rich foods. Taking calcium supplements, however, can increase the risk of stone formation.
People who excrete too much oxalate into their urine should avoid eating foods high in oxalate. These foods include beets, spinach, chard and rhubarb. Tea, coffee, cola, chocolate and nuts also contain oxalate, but these can be used in moderation. Eating too much salt and meat can cause more kidney stones to form.
After your doctor receives an analysis of the chemical composition of your kidney stones, he or she can suggest medications or changes in your diet that will help to prevent stones from forming in the future.
Certain medications may increase the risk of stones. So your doctor may want to adjust your regular medications if you have had kidney stones.
What are the different treatment modalities?
In many cases, a trapped kidney stone eventually flushes out of the urinary tract on its own, especially if you drink plenty of fluids. With doctor's supervision, it is likely that you can remain at home. You can take pain medicine as needed until the stone dislodges and flushes away.
In some cases, it is necessary to have your stone removed or broken into fragments that can pass more easily.
This may be the case if:
ULTRA-MINI-PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY (UMP)
UMP is novel modified technique of ultra-mini-percutaneous, nephrolithotomy (UMP) using of a novel 3 Fr mini nephroscope through an 11-13 Fr metal sheath to perform holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy, UMP is excellent minimally invasive technique. It has advantages of minimal blood lass, single treatment ( no DJ stent), less hospitalization & good stone clearance. Ultraminiperc may be suitable for stone sizes <1.5 cm. These are also suited for special situations such as diverticular stones and pediatric moderate-sized stones. The indications of these newer techniques compete with those of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and flexible ureteroscopy.
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